Category Archives: Renewable energy


Wind and solar energy on Earth must be replaced from the Sun when expended, bringing in more heat for release of equivalent electricity into the environment, than by depleting fossil fuels. Wind and solar energy cannot ultimately be renewed from lower temperature heat from the environment, by the First (conservation) and Second (transfer) Laws of Thermodynamics. Heat to produce wind for turbines and for solar absorption is more than fossil fuel heat, because renewable energy resources are replaced, increasing warming.

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Earth’s heat balance is certainly complex, but higher temperatures could come from retention of increased heat from Earth sources, with solar radiation absorption and emission continuing as in the past. Modelling of changes to the world energy balance can account for global warming and the futility of the net zero concept.

Heat energy to warm Earth’s land, oceans and atmosphere, is emitted by respiration of living things, by combustion of vegetation and fossil fuels, by capture of renewable energy replenished by the Sun and by geothermal processes. Some heat produced is radiated into space, but my calculations indicate the remainder is sufficient to add to normal solar warming and cooling, causing warming noticeable near city heat sources. 

Warming would not in the least be reduced by substituting for fossil fuels with solar, wind or hydro energy supplies. Warming in the environment is caused by spent inefficient energy consumed.  Reduction to net zero could require cutting energy consumption and waste by human populations to a low level, until entropy increase is balanced if possible by removal in endothermic reactions, such as photosynthesis, which absorbs heat with light. Deindustrialisation may be necessary. The theory of warming by greenhouse gases is considered in my previous post here Greenhouse Gases Not To Blame.

My satirical book Animal Farm 2 explains paradigm-shifted climate science.

Sequel to George Orwell’s novel Animal Farm

Animal Farm 2

Review for The Book Commentary

by Jane Riley June 1, 2021

In the tradition of George Orwell’s Animal Farm, Martin Knox has crafted a fable with strong political and social lessons about power and class struggle that are eminently evident in contemporary society. The novel introduces a farm located on a tropical island called Caruba. The farm is controlled by the Social Republic, a political entity that is embroiled in a cold war with the Democratic Union. On the farm, a revolution initiated by the Pigs has toppled the farmer. Now the Pigs exploit the animal farmers with cruelty and utter callousness. Everything changes when the farm animals discover coal on the farm and exploit it for their power supply. Their activity on the farm attracts the interests of the Caruba government, the Democratic Union, and the Social Republic. In the name of environmental protection, the animal project can be transformed into a tool in the hands of totalitarian leaders, but will the poor animal workers allow it to happen?

Intelligently plotted and brimming with humor, Animal Farm 2 compels readers to think about contemporary political and social realities. In this novel, readers will read about the kind of intrigue that is played out frequently in today’s political landscapes. The author writes conflict from a fresh and metaphorical perspective, allowing human drama and division to reflect on the reality of animals that labor on a farm. It is interesting to watch as the tension grows in magnitude, escalating to a moment when the animals have to determine whether climate change is a hoax and what happens when they are forced to rely on renewable energy. While Martin Knox writes about animals in this spellbinding story, he succeeds to infuse the narrative with realism, allowing qualities of humanity to reflect on the animals without failing to strengthen the anthropomorphism that elevates the quality of the narrative. The prose is dazzling, the characters nuanced, and the tale is one of the struggles for social justice set against a realistic backdrop of political intrigue and oppression. Animal Farm 2 is as thoughtful as it is hilarious, the very finesse of political satire. It will go down as a classic.

Available on Amazon.


The animals in the novel Animal Farm 2 by Martin Knox seek liberation from the totalitarian hell of George Orwell’s book Animal Farm (1945).  Are the animals right not to accept humans eating them and prevent animal births — even with the kindest treatment? Humans do sacrifice some of their number to military deaths in order to preserve their way of life. The pigs use abattoir deaths to control the other animals. 

Are foraging livestock useful for collecting food from the inaccessible bush and storing it on their bodies to be eaten in droughts when crops have failed? Is meat, after all a processed convenience food, unethical if you revere life of all species.

What would life be like without domestic livestock? If uneaten, animals would have to be fed and cared for on the little land remaining after expansion of agriculture. Animals would be helpless, without survival skills and with physiques disfigured by utilitarian breeding.

How many animals could be liberated? Beef-lot animals and piggery porkers could be among the first. Could dairy cows and sheep be kept because valued highly for their byproducts? Or should all animal products cease?

These questions are considered in Animal Farm 2, with meat eating reduced, the animals finding work in horticulture and coal mining — until they are affected by theories of climate change and fight to overthrow the pigs. This is an entertaining satire, revealing surprising animal ability at logic and science.

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