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To demonstrate that CO2 warms the atmosphere,’ said Stanley, ‘we could empty two identical grain silos and fill one with air and the other with pure COgas piped in from the vodka plant. Then we would put an infrared heater inside each.’

‘Why use infrared heaters?’ asked Pamela his partner.

‘Because infrared radiation from the Sun passes through the atmosphere,’ said Norman. ‘Some is absorbed and the rest warms the Earth’s surfaces or is reradiated.’

‘Would the infrared heat the air?’

‘Indirectly. The metal wall of the silo will warm up and heat the gases by convection and circulation, like the atmosphere.’

‘The metal wall wouldn’t absorb and radiate like the ocean and land, would it?’

‘It could be similar.’

‘How long would you let the two silos heat up for?’

‘Maybe a week. Then we could compare the temperatures reached.’

‘Why did you go for pure CO2? Air has only 0.045%?’ said Pamela.

‘I figured it would be easiest to see any difference with 100% CO2 and then scale the results proportionally down to 0.045%. CO2 would heat up more because it has 20% lower specific heat capacity.’

‘So what would this demonstrate?’

‘It could demonstrate Earth’s atmosphere containing more carbon dioxide would heat up more.’ 

‘Or not.’

‘Yes. It’s a fair test.’

Extracted from Animal Farm 2, by Martin Knox, available from Amazon.


Have you noticed that when you go outdoors at night, if there are clouds, it is warmer than when the sky is clear? Clouds and rain are part of heat and air circulation at the Earth’s surface, like a saucepan heated from below, with water evaporating and condensing on the lid, by losing heat into space. The water cycle keeps Earth warm.

Global warming could be caused by moisture and clouds in the atmosphere increasing with time.

The change in the Earth-Sun heat transfer balance has been attributed to the Earth trapping more incoming radiation during daytime. If this is so, would it not reradiate it at night time, as part of the equilibrium? In any case, heat absorbed at the surface is said to be transferred from 0.045% of carbon dioxide gas to warm up 99.96% of the atmosphere by a supposed heat transfer process. The supposed role of carbon dioxide puzzles me.

The anthropomorphic heat gain could plausibly be held back by the insulating effect of moisture and clouds above water storages, combustion exhausts, agricultural evaporation, irrigation and transpiration from crop plants. The numbers in the diagram relate water quantities. The increase could be a small change to Earth’s energy input and output, but enough to be a significant cause of global warming. Other warming could be by anthropomorphic heat pollution. Reducing human water usage, evaporation from dams and combustion of hydrogen-containing fuels could perhaps lower the small heat gain of climate change. 

My blog posts on climate change are at


When fossil fuels are combusted, all the heat produced, used and wasted, ends up in the oceans, lakes, atmosphere and space. You may have noticed that weather temperatures near cities are warmer, because cities are ‘heat sinks’ of human activity, where waste heat is disposed of into the atmosphere. 

The heat wasted into the air by cities, agriculture, livestock, transport and by evaporation from water storages is large. If you live near a thermal power station, where river, lake or ocean water is used for cooling, you may have noticed the water is warmed up and can even cause fog at night. Alternatively, heat could be wasted from a cooling tower.

You may have been at an airport and felt warm ‘jet wash’, exhaust gases from a plane manoeuvring. 

There is evidence that human heat pollution is significant. By comparison with solar radiation received by Earth, the amount of thermal pollution is lower when the Sun is high, but at night thermal pollution contributes significantly to the daily heat balance, enough to cause global warming. I calculate that human-generated heat stays on Earth with an average residence time of 140 years. 

Substitution of solar, wind and hydro for fossil fuel combustion would not reduce thermal pollution and could increase it, if electrical output efficiency is lower and more heat is wasted and replaced from the Sun. 

The other theory, that global warming could be caused by heat entrapment by a tiny amount of carbon dioxide gas, is disputed in the literature, unnecessarily complex and without evidence. To reduce global warming, energy consumption must be reduced.

More information is in my book Animal Farm 2, on Amazon.


Earth’s heat balance is certainly complex. Combustion emits carbon dioxide, water vapour and heat. Carbon dioxide has received most attention but heat probably causes most global warming. According to the greenhouse gases theory global warming is caused by carbon dioxide, but increased heat from Earth sources could cause warming, with solar radiation absorption and emission continuing as in the past. 

Heat energy to warm Earth’s land, oceans and atmosphere, is emitted by respiration of living things, by combustion of vegetation and fossil fuels, by capture of renewable energy replenished by the Sun and by geothermal processes. Some heat produced is radiated into space, but my calculations indicate the remainder is sufficient to add to normal solar warming and cooling, causing warming noticeable near city heat sources. 

Warming would not in the least be reduced by substituting for fossil fuels with solar, wind or hydro energy supplies because they are replenished from the Sun. Warming in the environment is caused by spent inefficient energy consumed.  To reduce heat emissions enough to stop warming could require cutting energy consumption and waste to a low level, until entropy increase is prevented by energy removal in endothermic reactions, such as photosynthesis, which absorbs heat with light. Deindustrialisation may be necessary. The theory of warming by greenhouse gases is considered in my previous post here Greenhouse Gases Not To Blame.

My satirical book Animal Farm 2 explains paradigm-shifted climate science.

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