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SILO TEST TO MEASURE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

‘The Enhanced Greenhouse Gas theory is that CO2 warms the atmosphere,’ said Stanley. ‘We are testing it. We emptied two identical grain silos and filled one with air and the other with pure COgas. We put an infrared heater inside each.’

 They went inside the air silo. The test simulated the absorption of radiation at the surface of the Earth and heating of the atmosphere.

‘Why did you use infrared heaters?’ asked Pamela his partner.

‘Because atmospheric warming is said to be mainly by IR from the Sun,’ said Norman. ‘It passes through air and warms at surfaces.’

‘Would the IR radiation heat the air?’

‘Indirectly. This model has a metal wall absorbing IR instead of the Earth’s surfaces, quite different to vegetated land or ocean water. The warmed surfaces would warm the gases by convection and circulation, like the atmosphere.’

‘I measured air temperature in here several times daily for a week.’

‘Did the air warm up?’

‘About 10oC. Now, let’s go into the other silo and see the rise with pure COpiped in from the vodka fermentation plant to flush out the air. The set up is identical.’ 

Sophie hesitated to go in. ‘

‘Can we breathe pure CO2?’

‘The CO2 has gone — I have let air in.’

They went inside. 

‘Why did you go for pure CO2? Air has only 0.045%?’ said Pamela.

‘I figured it would be easiest to see any difference with 100% CO2 and then scale the results proportionally back to 0.045%. Proportional effects can be scaled up or down.’

‘If pure CO2 trapped more radiation, as claimed, this one would become warmer.’

‘Would the effect be greater with 100% CO2 than 0.045%?’

‘Hell yes. If there is any warming effect with 0.045%, we would have it in a big way in here. About 2200 times greater than with air having only 0.045%.

‘Was the effect in here greater?’

‘The temperature increased to 12.5oC, but we reduced it because CO2 has 20% lower heat capacity and it would get hotter. Then temperature was the same as air: about 10oC.

‘Does it reject the EGHE theory?’

‘No, but this evidence would refute it. It is an estimate from IR absorption data. The test has to be done precisely and repeated many times.’

‘Hopefully someone has done a fair test, or will do it.’

See Animal Farm 2, by Martin Knox, 2021, p149, 156 available from Amazon.

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CLIMATE DOUBLE JEOPARDY

Double jeopardy prohibits different prosecutions for the same offense. This rule can come into play when a government brings a charge against someone for an incident, then prosecutes that person again for the same incident, only with a different charge.

For example, if a defendant is found not guilty of manslaughter in a drunk-driving incident, he or she cannot be tried again in criminal court. However, the deceased victim’s family is free to sue the defendant for wrongful death in a civil court to recover financial damages.

A situation of double jeopardy could possibly be invoked when an authority brings a charge against an electricity supplier for harmful combustion of fossil fuels. Improper waste disposal is an environmental crime and could be heard in a criminal court. If they are found not guilty, they cannot be tried again in the criminal court for the same incident with a different charge, for example pollution, However, the plaintiff is free to sue them in a civil court for wrongful polluting of air.

A defendant could maintain that non-renewable fuel combustion cannot be both polluting and resource – diminishing at the same time, for when that resource is not renewed, it cannot also cause pollution. The prosecutor cannot have a resource cake with pollution eating it at the same time.

The double jeopardy principle prevents courts contradicting each other.

Although the example situation above could not be dealt with by existing legislation, it could be a guide to fair treatment of alleged polluters from non-renewable resources. Resource depletion should be tested legally separately from alleged pollution.

The situation is notionally relevant to prosecution of fossil fuel compliance when neither pollution nor depletion have corroborating scientific evidence in Australia. A shifted climate science paradigm is explained in the novel Animal Farm 2.

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Types of evidence

Evidence

Direct evidenceof an occurrence is perceived by a witness using their senses.For example: a witness who testifies that he saw the defendant shoot the victim.

Indirect evidenceestablishes immediately collateral facts from which the main fact may be inferred e.g. Caltech astronomers Mike Brown and Konstantin Batygin have accumulated indirect evidence for an object that’s more than twice the diameter of Earth, but 10 times as far from the sun as Pluto.

Circumstantial evidenceconsists of a fact or set of facts which, if proven, will support the creation of an inference that the matter asserted is true e.g. a fingerprint at the scene of a crime.

In the crime fiction novel Presumed Dead, evidence of these types is used to reconstruct the crime.

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Crime reconstruction

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A crime can be analysed by developing a theory as a chain of causative hypotheses, the strength of each link depending upon the rigour of the testing. The strength of the chain is no more than its weakest link. Links are not necessarily strengthened by evidence, which may direct, indirect or circumstantial. Hypotheses can explain evidence but must be able to be falsified and able to make predictions of something yet unobserved.

In the crime fiction novel Presumed Dead, the crime is systematically reconstructed:

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