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Animal Farm 2 is a sequel and update on George Orwell’s novel Animal farm (1945).

The story is about totalitarianism, animal liberation and climate change.

The animals have difficulty imagining the amount of global temperature increase and the alternative causes possible. They have most evidence of global warming coming from all kinds of heat emission, including entropy increase from domestic and transport consumption of energy, amid balanced daily solar cycling. An enhanced greenhouse effect is an unnecessary complication, that promotes renewable energy. To reduce environment warming, it is logical to reduce consumption of energy of all kinds.

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To demonstrate that CO2 warms the atmosphere,’ said Stanley, ‘we could empty two identical grain silos and fill one with air and the other with pure COgas piped in from the vodka plant. Then we would put an infrared heater inside each.’

‘Why use infrared heaters?’ asked Pamela his partner.

‘Because infrared radiation from the Sun passes through the atmosphere,’ said Norman. ‘Some is absorbed and the rest warms the Earth’s surfaces or is reradiated.’

‘Would the infrared heat the air?’

‘Indirectly. The metal wall of the silo will warm up and heat the gases by convection and circulation, like the atmosphere.’

‘The metal wall wouldn’t absorb and radiate like the ocean and land, would it?’

‘It could be similar.’

‘How long would you let the two silos heat up for?’

‘Maybe a week. Then we could compare the temperatures reached.’

‘Why did you go for pure CO2? Air has only 0.045%?’ said Pamela.

‘I figured it would be easiest to see any difference with 100% CO2 and then scale the results proportionally down to 0.045%. CO2 would heat up more because it has 20% lower specific heat capacity.’

‘So what would this demonstrate?’

‘It could demonstrate Earth’s atmosphere containing more carbon dioxide would heat up more.’ 

‘Or not.’

‘Yes. It’s a fair test.’

Extracted from Animal Farm 2, by Martin Knox, available from Amazon.


‘The Enhanced Greenhouse Gas theory is that CO2 warms the atmosphere,’ said Stanley. ‘We are testing it. We emptied two identical grain silos and filled one with air and the other with pure COgas. We put an infrared heater inside each.’

 They went inside the air silo. The test simulated the absorption of radiation at the surface of the Earth and heating of the atmosphere.

‘Why did you use infrared heaters?’ asked Pamela his partner.

‘Because atmospheric warming is said to be mainly by IR from the Sun,’ said Norman. ‘It passes through air and warms at surfaces.’

‘Would the IR radiation heat the air?’

‘Indirectly. This model has a metal wall absorbing IR instead of the Earth’s surfaces, quite different to vegetated land or ocean water. The warmed surfaces would warm the gases by convection and circulation, like the atmosphere.’

‘I measured air temperature in here several times daily for a week.’

‘Did the air warm up?’

‘About 10oC. Now, let’s go into the other silo and see the rise with pure COpiped in from the vodka fermentation plant to flush out the air. The set up is identical.’ 

Sophie hesitated to go in. ‘

‘Can we breathe pure CO2?’

‘The CO2 has gone — I have let air in.’

They went inside. 

‘Why did you go for pure CO2? Air has only 0.045%?’ said Pamela.

‘I figured it would be easiest to see any difference with 100% CO2 and then scale the results proportionally back to 0.045%. Proportional effects can be scaled up or down.’

‘If pure CO2 trapped more radiation, as claimed, this one would become warmer.’

‘Would the effect be greater with 100% CO2 than 0.045%?’

‘Hell yes. If there is any warming effect with 0.045%, we would have it in a big way in here. About 2200 times greater than with air having only 0.045%.

‘Was the effect in here greater?’

‘The temperature increased to 12.5oC, but we reduced it because CO2 has 20% lower heat capacity and it would get hotter. Then temperature was the same as air: about 10oC.

‘Does it reject the EGHE theory?’

‘No, but this evidence would refute it. It is an estimate from IR absorption data. The test has to be done precisely and repeated many times.’

‘Hopefully someone has done a fair test, or will do it.’

See Animal Farm 2, by Martin Knox, 2021, p149, 156 available from Amazon.


Solar radiation warms the Earth’s surface, heat is convected into the atmosphere and eventually away into space. Trace carbon dioxide, 0.045% of the volume of the insulating gas blanket, absorbs heat like the other gases and is not chemically active like chlorofluorocarbons were — blamed for catalysing a hole in the ozone layer. Carbon dioxide has a very small part in global warming, which is probably caused by change in the Sun or orbit of the Earth. Increased carbon dioxide has probably been released from ocean water where most is dissolved, like the fizz bubbling from warming lemonade. Carbon dioxide is benign. An enhanced greenhouse effect caused by carbon dioxide is a myth without direct evidence. Phew — what a relief!  This interpretation is based on sound science.

A shifted paradigm of climate science is in my satirical novel Animal Farm 2.

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