Why Blame Carbon Dioxide?
Can there be evidence that carbon dioxide causes global warming? We can see that there is less arctic ice and shrinking of glaciers but the explanation could conceivably be that snowfall in their catchments has reduced. Even if there is warming, attributing these effects to it cannot be tested because causality is invisible and cannot be identified with certainty. Attributing the effect to carbon dioxide cannot be observed or tested directly. It’s too important to guess.
Scientists often establish causality by testing with a physical model. If there warming was observed in many tests and few results were without warming, nor many with cooling, then by the principle of induction the warming could be associated with carbon dioxide, under those conditions. No physical model can be large enough to approximate the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans. Models could possibly corroborate that carbon dioxide does cause warming (I haven’t heard of any such tests). Even so, models could add their logic to the theory but can never verify it absolutely.
People who use the reduced ice effects as evidence can be deceived by an a priori result, because melting was assumed to cause the reduction in ice observed, a circular argument and false.
Increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is not a smoking gun. Warming of the oceans is causing them to release some of their dissolved store of carbon dioxide. Warming has caused the carbon dioxide increase, not vice versa.
Attributing the cause of ice reduction to carbon dioxide with reasonable confidence requires that possible alternative causes are eliminated. The effect on ice of co-products of fossil fuel combustion, heat and water vapour, could also be to reduce it. Alternatively, Earth warming by the Sun has variable solar processes and Earth orbits that could cause warming and melting.
Other science theories, such as gravity, evolution and relativity, also have invisible causality and were adopted before their science was fully understood. Philosophies of science were modified to accommodate these theories. Carbon dioxide’s culpability could be accepted without evidence, provided it is logical, if it is not contradicted and if other explanations are not credible.
I have mentioned several alternative theories of ice reduction. William of Occam wanted preference to be given to the simplest theory. Thermal emissions explain warming more simply than does carbon dioxide. The significance of carbon dioxide needs to be reconsidered.
My coming novel Animal Farm 2 is a sequel to George Orwell’s Animal Farm and satirizes totalitarianism, animal liberation and climate change. martinknox.com
DO GREENHOUSE GASES WARM THE WORLD?
No. Heating of Earth’s atmosphere is unlike a greenhouse and the concept ‘greenhouse gases’ (GHGs) is redundant according to paradigm-shifted climate science theory.
|CONCEPT||CONVENTIONAL THEORY||PARADIGM SHIFTED THEORY|
|Infrared radiation absorption||By GHGs||By all gases|
|Solar radiation absorbed||Captured by 0.041% of gases that mix with and heat 99.06% of gases.||Heat emissions convected from Earth’s surface and retained by all gases.|
|Cause of global warming||Carbon dioxide traps infrared radiation||Heat emissions disperse into oceans, land, air and space.|
Occam’s Razor requires us to prefer the simpler of any two theories. The paradigm shifted explanation above is simpler, omitting greenhouse gases. Evidence is that infrared heaters heat restaurant surfaces and patrons but not the air directly, warming it by convection and circulation of gases of the air. Heat emissions, not GHGs are the main cause of global warming. Carbon dioxide is not a problem.
See my novel Animal Farm 2 on Amazon for a full explanation of the paradigm shift.
Animal Farm 2
Review for The Book Commentary
by Jane Riley June 1, 2021
In the tradition of George Orwell’s Animal Farm, Martin Knox has crafted a fable with strong political and social lessons about power and class struggle that are eminently evident in contemporary society. The novel introduces a farm located on a tropical island called Caruba. The farm is controlled by the Social Republic, a political entity that is embroiled in a cold war with the Democratic Union. On the farm, a revolution initiated by the Pigs has toppled the farmer. Now the Pigs exploit the animal farmers with cruelty and utter callousness. Everything changes when the farm animals discover coal on the farm and exploit it for their power supply. Their activity on the farm attracts the interests of the Caruba government, the Democratic Union, and the Social Republic. In the name of environmental protection, the animal project can be transformed into a tool in the hands of totalitarian leaders, but will the poor animal workers allow it to happen?
Intelligently plotted and brimming with humor, Animal Farm 2 compels readers to think about contemporary political and social realities. In this novel, readers will read about the kind of intrigue that is played out frequently in today’s political landscapes. The author writes conflict from a fresh and metaphorical perspective, allowing human drama and division to reflect on the reality of animals that labor on a farm. It is interesting to watch as the tension grows in magnitude, escalating to a moment when the animals have to determine whether climate change is a hoax and what happens when they are forced to rely on renewable energy. While Martin Knox writes about animals in this spellbinding story, he succeeds to infuse the narrative with realism, allowing qualities of humanity to reflect on the animals without failing to strengthen the anthropomorphism that elevates the quality of the narrative. The prose is dazzling, the characters nuanced, and the tale is one of the struggles for social justice set against a realistic backdrop of political intrigue and oppression. Animal Farm 2 is as thoughtful as it is hilarious, the very finesse of political satire. It will go down as a classic.
Available on Amazon. martinknox.com