Blog Archives


Animal Farm was published in 1945 by author George Orwell, satirizing collectivism at a time when western countries felt threatened by Russia’s totalitarian communism.

Animal Farm 2 by Martin Knox is a new sequel to Orwell’s satire, from Soviet to modern times, when western countries may feel vulnerable to Russian restoration and expansionism.

 The farm animals are on Caruba Island under superpower influence. They have learned English and climate science, to challenge the ruling pigs who exploit them cruelly. They are forced to labour in the farm’s coal mine. When the pigs shut it down, they are without pay and energy.  Will the animals revolt again and depose the pigs, who deposed the farmer?

The animals are seeking animal liberation but how would they govern the farm?

On Amazon. Reviews see


Vicki’s class is a cut above Tom’s. He is besotted and wants a relationship. They are in Britain,  where social class is determined by breeding, old money and privileged education. Tom tries to raise his class, drops his regional accent and adopts BBC English. Will his lower class breeding, lack of old money and his redbrick university, thwart their love?

When Vicki plays hard to get at university with him, Tom moves her on to a back burner, so he can concentrate on getting a first class degree. He frames his interest in her as a short transaction in the commodity love, with delivery delayed until after graduation. Vicki won’t be compromised, making out with his flat mate and breaking Tom’s deal with him. Rebuffed, Tom has another girl, until he goes to a job in Canada.

Tom returns to the UK on visits, staying in touch with Vicki and trying to rekindle their love. When she continues to reject him, he marries another girl and has children. He still wants Vicki but is faithful to his family.

 This is a story about personal ambition trying to displace social classes and family loyalties, dishonouring love. Tom rises to be CEO of an international oil company and tries to act morally and ethically against corporate greed. If he succeeds, will Vicki finally accept him?

Eventually his marriage fails and he plans to return to the UK to be with Vicki who is single. Should he have realised that her different class would inevitably come between them?  Should he have looked for a girl friend from his own class? Will Vicki want him, after all this time?

Short of Love is fast-paced biographical fiction, a true love story, interwoven between the  stylised lives of an ambitious engineer and an idealistic activist.

Available on Amazon. For reviews see


After George Orwell wrote Animal Farm (1945), Martin Knox wrote Animal Farm 2 (2021), The books satirize political and economic conditions, in a revolutionary setting from 1917 to about 2023, as one continuous narrative, paralleling historical events.

After the revolution had deposed the farmer, The animals were subjected to the oppressive control of a totalitarian regime. It had a pig dictator, a shambolic and arbitrary ideology and fearful animal masses.

A ruling class of pigs runs the farm corruptly in order to live luxuriously, keeping the other animals in penury. At the end of Orwell’s book, the animals are in a hopeless situation.

The sequel by Knox considers a microcosm of their predicament, magnified in a Cold War confrontation on Caruba Island, under pig rule. The Social Republic, which is a pig superpower and a Democratic Union of free nations, manoeuvre for geopolitical control of World energy supplies.

The animals learn climate science and question the pigs’ closure of their coal mine, the only income they have. The pigs use energy supply restrictions to make the workers superfluous and prolong their totalitarian rule.

To divert attention from internal hardship and dissent, the pigs enjoin the animals to invade a neighbouring territory, but they revolt again and oust the pigs. The animals get democratic rule at last.

Animal Farm is a story in which ordinary animals achieve, against the odds, liberation by reasoning, science and bravery. They learn to counter the misinformation of leaders, listening to each other and to elders. The setting is both familiar and dystopian. The books show the fallacy of totalitarian rule. The animals could operate Animal Farm much better. Pig rule is not needed. The animals succeed, in a story both uplifting and humorous.

Animal Farm 2 is available on Amazon. For reviews see:


Why Blame Carbon Dioxide?

Can there be evidence that carbon dioxide causes global warming? We can see that there is less arctic ice and shrinking of glaciers but the explanation could conceivably be that snowfall in their catchments has reduced. Even if there is warming, attributing these effects to it cannot be tested because causality is invisible and cannot be identified with certainty. Attributing the effect to carbon dioxide cannot be observed or tested directly. It’s too important to guess.

Scientists often establish causality by testing with a physical model. If there warming was observed in many tests and few results were without warming, nor many with cooling, then by the principle of induction the warming could be associated with carbon dioxide, under those conditions. No physical model can be large enough to approximate the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans. Models could possibly corroborate that carbon dioxide does cause warming (I haven’t heard of any such tests). Even so, models could add their logic to the theory but can never verify it absolutely.

People who use the reduced ice effects as evidence can be deceived by an a priori result, because melting was assumed to cause the reduction in ice observed, a circular argument and false.

Increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is not a smoking gun. Warming of the oceans is causing them to release some of their dissolved store of carbon dioxide. Warming has caused the carbon dioxide increase, not vice versa.

Attributing the cause of ice reduction to carbon dioxide with reasonable confidence requires that possible alternative causes are eliminated. The effect on ice of co-products of fossil fuel combustion, heat and water vapour, could also be to reduce it. Alternatively, Earth warming by the Sun has variable solar processes and Earth orbits that could cause warming and melting. 

Other science theories, such as gravity, evolution and relativity, also have invisible causality and were adopted before their science was fully understood. Philosophies of science were modified to accommodate these theories. Carbon dioxide’s culpability could be accepted without evidence, provided it is logical, if it is not contradicted and if other explanations are not credible.

I have mentioned several alternative theories of ice reduction. William of Occam wanted preference to be given to the simplest theory. Thermal emissions explain warming more simply than does carbon dioxide. The significance of carbon dioxide needs to be reconsidered.

My coming novel Animal Farm 2 is a sequel to George Orwell’s Animal Farm and satirizes totalitarianism, animal liberation and climate change.

%d bloggers like this: